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And these remains are not only lingering on in solid architectural form, but, amidst the people in coun- try regions, many old hostilities still smoulder, and the denizen of one village cherishes a keen traditional an- tagonism to his neighbour of the next hill.

They fled from Florence with the other Guelphs after the defeat at Montaperti ; but we find a second Cerrettiero, who won an unenviable notoriety as favorite counsellor of the hated Duke of Athens, and with difficulty saved himself from the MEDIEVAL VINCIGLIATA. book in the Magliabechian Li- brary (The Priorista di Griuliano Ricci) says : " In early times the Visdomini were said to have been most noble and ancient gentlemen of the Gruelph faction, who in 1215 lived in San Martino, and had possessions and towers ; thej^ changed their name and arms several times." The Tosinghi, della Tosa, etc. Whether the Visdomini held the Castle of Vincigliata for a term of centuries, or a term of years, is not re- corded, as there is a hiatus in the documents respect- ing it till early in the 14*^ century, when we find it in the possession of Bocca and Giovanni di Scarlatto : they in 1318 ceded their rights of lordship to Griovanni di Bartolo Usimbardi, who with his brother Barnaba and his son Niccolo were the next inhabitants.

9 fury of the populace when the Duke was driven out in 1343. The Usimbardi were well known in Florence till the 13**" century, when some of them emigrated from the city during the civil wars of that time, and retired to the Val d' Elsa where they became citizens of im- portance at Oolle.* * In the 16*^ century one of the family named Francesco became father of three eminent sons : Usimbardo bishop of Golle, Pietro bishop of Arezzo, and Lorenzo secretary to the Grrand-Duke Ferdinand I. A certain Bastiano Usimbardi was sent by the Re- public to Majorca in 1422 to make a treaty of com- merce.

The price given was a gold ring and a horse, coin being evidently scarce in those daj^s.

This deed executed at Vincigliata would imply that the four brothers were in possession of it at the time ; MEDIEVAL VINCIGLIATA.

Temple-Leader who has so well illustrated medieval times, in his restora- tion of Vincigliata.

Vincigliata is a fine Castle standing on a hill to the North of Florence, and is interesting both for its architecture and its history, which begins some two centuries before Arnolfo commenced his Duomo and the Palazzo della Signoria, at Florence.

The same deed specifies that Uberto the deacon was the son of a nephew of Guido the first custodian, and that Giovanni the acolyte was the son of another Giovanni Visdomini.

Giovanni the deacon, who sold his tithal rights to his kinsman of Vincigliata, was probably a member of the same family.

The precise reasons for this are not appa- rent, as in that year while the plague ravaged Florence the deliberations of the Signoria were insufficiently chronicled — it was probabl}^ a step necessary to public security, the Castle being little better than a strong- hold of robbers.

There exists, as proof of its destruc- tion, a note of the payment by the Commune, in July and August 1348, of 86 gold florins to Justo Bartoli, Francisco Berti, and Niccoleno Pagni (the Magistrates who caused Castel di Poggio to be destroyed), for the pay and food of the workmen employed.

At that time the Burghers had not begun, as in the security of their prosperous days, to people the surrounding hills with vi Uas, where peaceful husband- MEDIEVAL VINCIGLIATA. But between the mother city — the Etruscan and Eoman Fiesole — on the hill, and the daughter, Florence, growing to beaut}^ in the field of Flowers in the plain, there were the strong- holds of a few nobles, guarding the heights around the new city.

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