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In 2014 wind and solar PV had capacity factors of 17% and 11% respectively, compared with 92% for nuclear (IEA figures).In 2011 Russia provided almost 40% of the gas, followed by Norway, Netherlands and the UK, while 14% was produced domestically.
It is to ignore the fact that wind and solar power impose costs on the entire energy system, which go up more than proportionately as they add more." The country's 17 nuclear power reactors, comprising 15% of installed capacity, formerly supplied more than one-quarter of the electricity (133 TWh net in 2010).
Many of the units are large (they totalled 20,339 MWe), and the last came into commercial operation in 1989.
The most immediate effect of this change of policy was to terminate R&D on both the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor and the fast breeder reactors after some 30 years of promising work, since much of the work was in North Rhine-Westphalia, which was governed by the SPD.
A Christian Democrat (CDU) federal government then maintained support for existing nuclear power generation nationally until defeated in 1998.
In particular, the agreement put a cap of 2623 billion k Wh on lifetime production by all 19 operating reactors, equivalent to an average lifetime of 32 years (less than the 35 years sought by industry).
Two key elements were a government commitment to respect the rights of utilities to operate existing plants, and a guarantee that this operation and related waste disposal will be protected from any "politically-motivated interference".
Other elements included: a government commitment not to introduce any "one-sided" economic or taxation measures, a recognition by the government of the high safety standards of German nuclear plants and a guarantee not to erode those standards, the resumption of spent fuel transports for reprocessing in France and UK for five years or until contracts expire, and maintenance of two waste repository projects (at Konrad and Gorleben).
In June 2001 the leaders of the ' Red-Green' coalition government and the four main energy companies signed an agreement to give effect to this 2000 compromise.
“Over the last decade, well-intentioned policymakers in Germany and other European countries created renewable energy policies with generous subsidies that have slowly revealed themselves to be unsustainable, resulting in profound, unintended consequences for all industry stakeholders.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating